Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics

Description

Pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products are produced in many forms, from powders and granules to Pastes and liquids. The colour of these products is important in the identification, safety and aesthetic value of the final product, as well as a way to measure the progress of processing. Pharmaceutical colour is also an important indicator of degradation.

The Tintometer manufacture a range of instruments for the evaluation of colour for incoming raw materials, final product and packaging material in its many different forms.

Please do not hesitate to contact us to discuss your specific application.

Scales & Values

Grading techniques are widely used to assess product colour by comparison with a representative series of fixed colour standards.

For many product types, a characteristic set of standards was agreed and adopted to aid colour control and the communication of colour specifications; the result is a selection of traditional colour grading scales that have been adopted as industry standards and are still common today.

Your colour scale determines your instrument choice. We would be delighted to offer advice as to the correct colour scale and thus instrument choice for your application. Please do not hesitate to contact us .

Colour Scales:

  • Chinese Pharmacopoeia (CP) Colour
    • Chinese scale for grading pharmaceutical solutions, divided into five colour series: yellowish green (YG1 – YG10); Yellow (Y1 – Y10); Orange Yellow(OY1 – OY10); Orange Red (OR1 – OR10); Brownish Red.
    • The Chinese Pharmacopoeia is similar in principle to the European Pharmacopeia (EP) colour in that the colours are made using yellow, red and blue primary solutions
    • However, the yellow solution is different to the EP, and the proportion of solution used and the colour designations are different.
    • This scale is available as an upgrade to the PFXi.
  • CIE 94
    • In 1994 the CIE released a new tolerance method called CIE94. Like CMC, the CIE94 tolerancing method also produces an ellipsoid. The user has control of the lightness (kL) to chroma (KC) ratio, as well as the commercial factor (cf). These settings affect the size and shape of the ellipsoid in a manner similar to how the l:c and cf settings affect CMC.
    • However, while CMC is targeted for use in the textile industry, CIE94 is targeted for use in the paint and coatings industry. You should consider the type of surface being measured when choosing between these two tolerances. If the surface is textured or irregular, CMC may be the best fit. If the surface is smooth and regular CIE94 may be the best choice.
    • Instruments that can be used: RT range / OnColor range.
  • CIE L*u*v* Colour Space
    • Uniform colour space adopted in 1976. Appropriate for use in additive mixing of light. (eg., Colour Television).
    • Instruments that can be used: RT range / OnColor range; NC45.
  • CIE L*a*b*
    • A Colour space in which values L*, a* and b* are plotted using a Cartesian coordinate system. Equal distances in the space approximately represent equal colour differences. L* represents lightness; a* represents the red/green axis; and b* represents the yellow/blue axis. CIE L*a*b* is a popular colour space for measuring both reflective and transmissive samples.
    • Instruments that can be used: most instruments in the Lovibond® range.
  • CIELAB (L*C*h)
    • This is an assessment of colour system that is more usually used to set tolerances once the hue, chroma and lightness limits are established.
    • While CIELAB (L*a*b*) uses Cartesian coordinates to calculate a colour in a colour space, CIELAB (L*C*h) uses polar coordinates. This colour expression can be derived from CIELAB (L*a*b*). The L*, as before defines lightness, C* specifies chroma and h denotes hue angle, an angular measurement.
    • The L*C*h expression offers an advantage over L*a*b* in that it is very easy to relate to the earlier systems based on physical samples, like the Munsell Colour Scale.
    • Instruments that can be used: most instruments in the Lovibond® colour range
  • CMC Tolerancing
    • MC is not a colour space but rather a tolerancing system.
    • CMC tolerancing is based on CIELAB (L*C*h) and provides better agreement between visual assessment and measured colour difference. CMC tolerancing was developed by the Colour Measurement Committee of the Society of Dyers and Colourists in Great Britain and became public domain in 1988.
    • Instruments that can be used: RT range / OnColor range; NC45
  • Delta E* colour difference
    • Assessment of colour is more than a numeric expression. Usually it’s an assessment of the colour difference (delta) from a known standard. CIELAB (L*a*b*) and CIELAB (L*C*h) are used to compare the colours of two objects.
    • The expressions for these colour differences are DL*, Da*, Db*, or DL* DC* DH* ("D" symbolises "delta," which indicates difference). Note: DH* is usually used instead of Dh to enable DE* to be calculated.
  • European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Colour
    • The EP Colour Standards were originally visually close colour standards intended to improve colour communication between sites, by defining a sample colour as being close to a physical liquid standard (near EP Y2) rather than using the words "light yellow"
    • EP consists of three primary colour standard solutions (yellow, red, blue) that are combined with hypochloric acid to make 5 standard solutions that, when futher diluted with hydrochloric acid (10 mg / liter) make 37 reference EP standards: Red (R1 – 7); Yellow (Y1 – Y7); Brown (B1 – B9); Brown / Yellow (BY1 – BY7); Green / Yellow (GY1 – GY7)
    • The procdurefor manufactring these standards is time consuming and tedious and the stock solutions must be stored in a cool dark place in order to remain colour constant. It is for these reasons that standards of a more stable nature were in demand. Thus a series of Lovibond® colour discs were originally developed to represent this scale.
    • An alternative to the visual methods is now available as a programme in the Lovibond® PFXi ranges of spectrocolorimeters. Measurements are based on specific wavelengths for each of the various pharmacopoeia colour scales.
    • This scale is available as an upgrade to the PFXi.
  • Transmittance
    • The ratio of transmitted flux to incident flux under specified conditions.
    • Instruments that can be used: PFX range
  • US Pharmacopoeia(USP) Colour
    • As defined in the American pharmacopoeia USP 22 <1061> "Color-Instrumental Measurement."
    • As with the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) colour, the US scale is used for grading pharamceutical. In the case of US, the range is from A – T.
    • Instrumets used: AF335 USP Colour Scale; PFX1195/5.
  • Whiteness Index (ASTM E 313)
    • Certain industries such as paint, textiles and paper manufacturing, evaluate their materials and products based on standards of whiteness. Typically, this whiteness index is a preference rating for how white a material should appear.
    • The Whiteness Index is a measure which correlates the visual ratings of whiteness for certain white and near-white surfaces.
    • The American Standards Test Methods (ASTM) has defined whiteness and yellowness indices. The E313 whitness index is used for measuring near-white, opaque materials such as paper, paint and plastic. In fact, this index can be used for any material whose colour appears white.
    • Instruments that can be used: RT range / OnColor range; NC45.
  • xyY chromacity co-ordinates
    • The coordinates x, y, and z are derived from the XYZ Tristimulus values by the following calculation such that x + y + z = 1, x = X/(X + Y + Z), y = Y/(X + Y + Z), z = Z/(X + Y + Z).
    • The values of x and y can then be used to pinpoint a colour in the x y coordinate system. The x and y chromaticity coordinates are generally reported along with the value of luminance factor Y.
    • Instruments that can be used: most instruments in the Lovibond® colour range.
  • XYZ tristimulus values
    • The CIE XYZ 1931 Tristimulus system is a modified version of the RGB colour tristimulus system and uses non real or imaginary stimuli. This innovation allows all colours within its gamut to be expressed as positive numbers, unlike the RGB system, where some colours fall outside its gamut and are expressed as negatives. The XYZ chromaticity co-ordinates are defined as x,y,and z.
    • Instruments that can be used: most instruments in the Lovibond® colour range.
  • Yellowness Index (ASTM E 313)
    • Yellowness Index is a number calculated from spectrophotometric data that describes the change in colour of a test sample from colourless through to yellow.
    • The American Standards Test Methods (ASTM) has defined whiteness and yellowness indices. The ASTM’s E313 yellowness index is used to determine the degree to which a sample’s colour shifts away from an ideal white. The D1925 yellowness index is used for measuring plastics.
  • ICUMSA Colour Index (ICUMSAGS1-7, ICUMSA GS2/3-9)
    • The coordinates x, y, and z are derived from the XYZ Tristimulus values by the following calculation such that x + y + z = 1, x = X/(X + Y + Z), y = Y/(X + Y + Z), z = Z/(X + Y + Z).
    • The values of x and y can then be used to pinpoint a colour in the x y coordinate system. The x and y chromaticity coordinates are generally reported along with the value of luminance factor Y.
    • Instruments that can be used: most instruments in the Lovibond® colour range.

 

Please send us an email explaining what you would like to test, your colour application and environment and we will send you a brochure with specifications based on your requirements.

Please send us an email explaining what you would like to test, your colour application and environment and we will recommend a suitable Lovibond® Tintometer colour testing instrument.

Additional information

Weight 0.00 kg